LIMANi Ship of Spain and Portugal – Tanker ships are specifically built to carry large quantities of liquids and gases. These vessels can transport a wide range of cargo, including crude oil, refined products like LNG, LPG, jet fuel, diesel, and asphalt, chemicals, vegetable oil, fresh water, wine, and various other substances. Although tankers come in different sizes, they are typically quite sizable and have significant drafts.
The ownership structure of the tanker ships fleet is characterized by fragmentation, with the majority of owners controlling fewer than three vessels. Independent owners hold a significant share of the fleet, accounting for 70%, while oil companies own 25% of the fleet. Similar to dry bulk ships, tankers are chartered to shippers through longer time charters or spot voyage charters.
The market is highly competitive, with the top five liquid bulk charterers controlling approximately 25% of the market. VLCCs, which are primarily utilized for Middle East exports to Asia and the USA, play a crucial role in the industry. Additionally, there is a fleet of gas carriers with a global capacity of 17 million gt that transports liquefied natural gas (LNG) and petroleum gas (LPG).
Tanker ships, also known as tanker ships or tankers, are specifically designed to transport large quantities of liquefied goods. These goods can include various types of liquids such as crude oil, petroleum, liquefied natural gas (LNG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), wine, bitumen, and even juices. Tankers play a crucial role in the transportation of these goods, and with advancements in technology, there has been a significant increase in the number of tankers available for this purpose.
These tanker ships are equipped with modern technologies and come in different sizes and capacities, ranging from small self-propelled barges to ultra large crude carriers. Approximately 30% of the world’s merchant ships are tankers. The diverse range of liquefied goods requires different types of tanker ships to ensure appropriate transportation. Some of the longest vessels in the world today are tanker ships. The construction and technical structuring of these ships are regulated by the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to ensure the safety of transporting volatile substances without compromising any safety aspects.
What is Tanker Ships
In the late 1861, Elizabeth Watts embarked on a voyage aboard a vessel that transported 224 tons of petroleum to England. This marked the inaugural shipment of liquefied material being transported as cargo. The establishment of the tanker ships industry took place around 1886, leading to the development of specialized vessels dedicated to transporting oil across the globe.
The GLUCKAUF, a 2700-ton British vessel, holds the distinction of being the world’s first authentic oil tanker, featuring separate tanks within its hull specifically designed for oil transportation. This innovative ship introduced the concept of direct pumping of oil into dedicated compartments, a departure from the previous practice of shipping oil in drums or barrels. The design of the Glukauf continues to influence modern tanker designs to this day.
The tank steamship was a groundbreaking invention by Americans, designed specifically for the transportation of oil in large quantities. An innovative Yankee demonstrated the feasibility of pumping oil directly through pipelines onto these steamships, ensuring safe transportation across the vast oceans. This revolutionary approach significantly reduced costs, as a single tanker could transport a greater volume of oil compared to multiple barrels. However, it is worth noting that for the first 90 years of the tanker industry’s existence, these vessels were primarily used for carrying oil and not other types of tanker ships.
During this time, the most notable achievement was the development of a fleet of 16000 DWT (deadweight tonnage) tankers, which are still in use today. It was only in the mid-20th century that tankers capable of carrying various types of liquids, including Very Large Crude Carriers (VLCCs) and Ultra Large Crude Carriers (ULCCs), were introduced. As the 21st century dawned, the focus shifted towards enhancing the safety of tanker voyages rather than modifying the vessels themselves. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) played a crucial role in establishing standards for safer tanker ship designs, while other innovations emerged to ensure the secure transportation of goods.